WNS derives its name from the whitish fungus which appears on the nose and/or wings of infected bats typically. However, not all infected bats display these visual symptoms. The condition causes bats to engage in atypical behaviors such as for example flying during intervals when their prey is certainly unavailable, such as sub-zero temperatures in daylight hours. Infected bats will also cluster around the entrances with their hibernacula . After the disease episodes a colony of bats, it spreads quickly and typically wipes out 90 percent of those sharing a hibernation dwelling.Snap-frozen aorta was disrupted using Trizol , glass beads and a Mini-Beadbeater. RNA purity and concentration was determined on a Nanodrop 2000 spectrophotometer. Real-time PCR was performed for expression of human TAP1, ADFP, BDCA3, IRF8, Rab11b, Batf3 and Necl2 or mouse Rab11b, TAP1 and XCR1 using SensiMix SYBR Green on a Bio-Rad CFX96 Real-Time System, C1000 Thermal Cycler. Gene expression of one housekeeping gene, i.e. Due to the limited quantity of plaque material, more house-keeping genes cannot be included in the analysis.